House Price Based On IncomeThus, a price change from $500,000 to $525,000 likely affects you less than a change from $100,000 to $105,000, even though the percentage price change is the same. All data series begin in first quarter 1975. US-based property search engine Homes. Median Home Price in the US by Month. During the housing bubble of 2006 the ratio exceeded 7 - in other words, an average single family house in the United States cost more than 7 times the U. median annual household income. 8, which puts it at 11% over its historical average. 2020 and 2021 median income is estimated at a 5% annual gain. 40 percent from January 1, 2022 and beyond. The rule of thumb is to spend about 28% of your income on housing. Down Payment Cash Cash you can pay when you close. This calculator should give you a rough idea of your house price range based on the monthly payment you can afford for a mortgage. Obligations like loan and debt payments or alimony, but not costs like groceries or utilities. House price for low income people are higher compared with house price for medium income people and high income people. cost around 5 times the yearly household income. If you have a low income and need help buying your first home, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Housing Choice Voucher homeownership program may be able to help. This chart show the ratio between the UK House Price Index and UK Consumer Price Index (CPI). Front-end debt ratio = monthly housing costs monthly gross income × 100% For our calculator, only conventional and FHA loans utilize the front-end debt ratio. Housing ratio equals combined (principal + interest + taxes + insurance) monthly mortgage payment divided by your gross monthly income. Train the model to learn from the data to predict the median housing price in any district, given all the other metrics. Prior to 1983, however, BLS calculated CPI: Shelter based on housing prices, mortgage rates, property taxes and insurance, and maintenance costs. (The capitalization or cap rate is obtained by dividing the NOI by the property value. 23 trillion in assets under management as of September 30, 2022. The country was followed by Portugal, which sat 5. Payments you make for loans or other debt, but not living expenses like. Make sure you have the base salary needed to buy a house before making an offer. Calculate the home price you can pay and the mortgage schedule you will need based on the payment, down payment, taxes and insurance you can afford. Historically, an average house in the U. You should have three months of housing payments and expenses saved up. With a household income of $65,000 an affordable home would cost between $250,000 and $300,000. "Affordability was aggravated by the property hype during the 2010-to-2014 period, when property prices rose double digits annually — and peaked at 13. But even the need to earn $21,404 a month seems to be unnecessary with a mortgage. disposable household income (Australia-wide) to median house prices has . In the Case-Shiller release Tuesday, the seasonally adjusted National Index (SA), was reported as being 40% above the bubble peak in 2006. You're impacting 20,000 global makers and igniting social change for good. Over 145% upside potential in existing income. You've got many other factors to consider. Calculating property value based on rental income is a very important skill for a real estate investor to have. Some lenders, for example, indicate that a home's sale price should not exceed 2. (The capitalization or cap rate is obtained by dividing the. This is caused by rising house prices at Beijing. Historically, an average house in the U. Support to help with rent or mortgage payments if you're on a low income. Sacramento, California Neighborhood Map - Income, House Prices, Occupations, Boundaries. You're likely to pay at least 30% (likely more) than your income to secure one. based on the earlier hedonic models, show that trade-up houses appreci-. Using national median income and house prices provides a gross overview of price-to-income (it would be better to do this analysis on a local area). The Recommended Ratio of a House Price to Your Yearly Income Yearly Income Estimates. #House Prices; Outside investors are buying up homes in Baltimore's low-income and Black neighborhoods; Outside investors are buying up homes in Baltimore's low-income and Black neighborhoods. If you're looking for a more expensive home, making a bigger down payment or paying down more of your monthly debt could help. In addition to not having to pay state income taxes, Texas residents can easily afford to own or rent a home, as home prices tend to be . It contains 1460 training data points and 80 features that might help us predict the selling price of a house. 16, which means the gap between housing and income grew at 40% of the rate of Canada. How Much House Can I Afford in Florida with my Salary?. Rowe Price is a global investment management organization with $1. If you are willing to compromise a bit on things like this, you can often score lower home prices. Choices of variables chosen are based on literatures relating to house prices and income. The current cap rate on single family homes is 5. 5% of the state's median income on average, the lowest rate in the nation. Income Needed To Afford The Average Home Price In Every State in. The average resident age is 79. House #2 is a 2,100. Number of Available Substitutes. com/_ylt=AwrFcOt6OWFjNN0NSQVXNyoA;_ylu=Y29sbwNiZjEEcG9zAzQEdnRpZAMEc2VjA3Ny/RV=2/RE=1667344890/RO=10/RU=https%3a%2f%2fwww. Your debt-to-income ratio (DTI) should be 36% or less. How Much Rent Can I Afford?. So if you & your spouse are earning total Rs 20 lakh – you should buy a house in . “Affordability was aggravated by the property hype during the 2010-to-2014 period, when property prices rose double digits annually — and peaked at 13. Think of it as the homeowner’s equivalent to the renter’s rule that you shouldn’t pay more than a third of your income toward rent. Volatility in house price inflation has a big impact on economic instability. Over that same period, median household income has increased from $59,920 in 1965 (adjusted for inflation) to $69,178 today. How does my debt-to-income ratio affect how much house I can afford? how much house you can afford with an FHA loan based on the cost of . The average home sold in England now costs 8 7 times the average annual disposable income with affordability ratios in England now worse . A 20% down payment is ideal to lower your monthly payment, avoid. It shows what percentage of a population can afford to buy the median-priced home in a given region based on their income. Lower ratios are more likely to support home prices, since incomes can more easily carry them. The Recommended Ratio of a House Price to Your Yearly Income. Call 1-800-913-2350 for expert help. Depending on the home price you're aiming for, you may want to wait a year or two before you apply for a mortgage if you've just moved into . The best low cost / budget house design plans. Build a model of housing prices to predict median house values in California using the provided dataset. A gift, grant, or loan from an acceptable source can help you obtain three percent of the homes purchase price. On average, housing is 16 percent of headline PCE and 18 percent of core PCE. The average home sold in England cost the equivalent of 8. This calculator is intended to provide estimated net price information (defined as estimated cost of attendance — including tuition and required fees, books and supplies, room and board (meals), and other related expenses — minus estimated grant and scholarship aid) to current and prospective students and their families based on what similar students paid in a. For the “investment decision” for a home purchase, the P/E ratio depicts the number of years of family or household income that will be invested to purchase a . 9 in Q4 2018, up 2% from the year before. Discover how much house you can afford based on your income, and calculate your monthly payments to determine your price range and home loan options. House price to income ratio continues to climb amid property. A whole analysis on just these numbers could be done (and will be!), but let's look at some obvious takeaways. The unit median is 13 times higher. The housing market is becoming more affordable but is still beyond loan-to-value (LVR) mortgage, based on an average property value over . Your housing expenses should be 29% or less. For the U. Incomes and mortgage rates are used to inflate or deflate unadjusted house prices in order to better reflect consumers' purchasing power and capture the true cost of housing. However, the exact amount depends on the loan program you choose,. It is based on the ONS mortgage survey. Households who pay more than thirty percent of their gross income are considered to be Rent Overburdened. International House Price Database. and Census Division (Seasonally Adjusted and Not Adjusted) January 1991 - Latest Month. Incomes and mortgage rates are used to inflate or deflate unadjusted house prices in order to better reflect consumers' purchasing power and capture the true cost of housing. Taxes (32% of pretax income) $2,667. Before investing in real estate, knowing the value of a rental property is essential to avoid overpaying for a home or to know when to move fast when the right . Income Needed to Buy a House. This is the estimated value of the apartment building based only on its rental income. If you are a first-time homebuyer with an FHA loan, the payment for a $450k house with an interest rate of 5% and a down payment of $15,750 (3. House Price Dynamics: The Role of Tax Policy and Demography. Many among the urban poor cannot afford to set up their own home, especially in major cities. 5% above the housing boom peak in 2006, real, house-buying power-adjusted house prices remain 33. The FHFA House Price Index (FHFA HPI ®) is the nation's only collection of public, freely available house price indexes that measure changes in single-family home values based on data from all 50 states and over 400 American cities that extend back to the mid-1970s. CUTE FUZZ 3D BY Oscar creativo. Absolute income inequality and rising house prices. A home price of $312,737 is affordable for you. What should the house price to income ratio be for buying a. Interpretation Historically, an average house in the U. That is, a f amily must invest nearly 5 times their annual family income For the purchase of their home. 9% surpassed income’s 5. The following rule stipulates that your total housing costs (including the mortgage, homeowners insurance, private mortgage insurance or PMI, . Low Income Housing Guide for Renters. 2% below their 2006 housing boom peak. One rule of thumb is to aim for a home that costs about two-and-a-half times your gross annual salary. The Fund's monthly income target is the RBA cash rate plus 5% per annum - excluding fees and costs. This index rates middle-income housing affordability using the "Median Multiple" which is the median house price divided by the median household income. 8% between February and March 2021, compared. Using the 28/36 rule, this amount should not be more than 28 percent of your gross monthly income. Savings, debt and other expenses could impact the amount you want to spend on rent each month. Find Affordable Rental Housing. Calculate the home price you can pay and the mortgage schedule you will need based on the payment, down payment, taxes and insurance you can afford. Search 218 Low Income Single Family Homes For Rent in Detroit, Michigan. The Case-Shiller Home Price Index seeks to measure the price level of existing single family homes in the United States. We found that the average house in the UK currently costs more than eight-times average earnings, based on data as at 31 December 2020. Using the 28/36 rule, this amount should not be more than 28 percent of your gross monthly income. Home prices have been rising three times faster than income since the 2008 financial crisis, according to a recent 2021 study. Median household income was $67,521 in 2020, a decrease of 2. We sell the homes to qualified home buyers through a lottery. So who can afford this house? Analysis: All three of our homebuyers can afford this one. One rule of thumb is to aim for a home that costs about two-and-a-half times your gross annual salary. Further, your mortgage will decline to $680,000. After peaking at a ratio of over 5. A 20% down payment is ideal to lower your monthly payment, avoid private mortgage insurance and increase your affordability. Housing expenses should be no more than 28% of your total pre-tax income. $ Calculate by $ $ Calculator disclaimer Home price You can afford a house up to $296,318 Based on the information you provided, a house at this price should fit comfortably within your budget. A home that costs from $450,000 to $500,000 is considered to be affordable for a household with an annual income of $105,000. How much monthly income should you spend on your home loan?. Meet a minimum income requirement set by the local public housing authority. For example, a combined monthly mortgage payment of $1,200 divided by gross monthly income of $4,500 equals a housing ratio of 27%. This is for things like insurance, taxes, maintenance, and repairs. The income approach formula values a rental property based on net operating income and cap rate, or capitalization rate. If gross rental income is $18,600, property value would be $161,820: Property value =. in mind that the [debt] ratios should be based on the value of the prop-. As many first time buyers turn to . Most lenders require borrowers to keep housing costs to 28% or less of their pretax income. Source: S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC. So the property will generate $20,400 a year. The amount of money you spend upfront to purchase a home. The house is a deal at a listing price of just $135,000. 41 million is about 23 times higher than the median employee income in Greater Sydney, Domain modelling shows. There is more information about home price sales pairs in the Methodology section. However this does shows that the price-to-income is still too high, and that this ratio needs to fall another 10% or so. Low income housing is a subsidized form of housing that is meant to help the poor or people with low incomes afford decent, safe and sanitary. Introduction; House prices are affordable to middle-income households in most U. This calculator shows rentals that fit your budget. In low-income neighborhoods, where median incomes fell below $26,000, the researchers saw home values appreciate 6. 055 = $370,909 The property value would be about $370,909. Expand this block to see the historical median price of single family homes in the United States. Price-to-income ratio is the median home price divided by the median household income in an area (Note: some researchers use disposable income, but for our purposes we'll be using median household income). Our data comes from a Kaggle competition named “House Prices: Advanced Regression Techniques”. Government houses for low income. The lower the ratio, the better income growth is doing relative to house price growth. The average house-price-to-income ratio is 5. other costs on top of your State Pension · Benefits to help with housing costs. Rule of Thumb: Take 4 times your annual salary (combined income if you are married) to determine how much house you can afford. House Price-to-Income Ratio Definition The house price to income ratio is a basic affordability measure, to see if incomes are keeping up. It’s not uncommon for seniors to fin. Individuals are considered one-person families. and Census Division (Seasonally Adjusted): Latest 18-Month Summary. The income approach formula values a rental property based on net operating income and cap rate, or capitalization rate. Since the second world war, the ratio rose steadily, showing how house price growth progressively outstripped inflation, a trend that has. Home Affordability Calculator. During the housing bubble of 2006 the ratio exceeded 7 - in other words, an average. What's the absolute minimum income you need to purchase a home? House prices are up in 2022 as a result of a record-setting housing boom . A low affordability index can be another sign of a housing bubble. 1 However, it's not all bad news. Making Housing Affordable. This calculator should give you a rough idea of your house price range based on the monthly payment you can afford for a mortgage. 1, but by 2017 it increased to 4. San Antonio started a pilot in 2020 that would give 1,000 low-income families $400 every three months over a two-year period. This is based on the median house value and assumes you have a 20% deposit and Income to avoid mortgage stress assumes annual mortgage . We'll all soon be low income people if he doesn't give his friggin head a shake. Data Sources Recent data HM Land Registry: UK House Price Index since 2000. Your mortgage payment should be 28% or less. Explore rentals by neighborhoods, schools, local guides and more on Trulia! NEW - 1 DAY AGO INCOME RESTRICTED. 7 times the average annual disposable household income of £31800. Neighborhood Homes Requirements. Let’s load the Kaggle dataset into a Pandas data frame:. Canada’s house price-to-income ratio is the highest in the world – by a large margin. Other country rankings by Numbeo: Quality of Life Index by Country 2022 Mid-Year. 2% below their 2006 housing boom peak. Net Income $69,000 Annual household income / year Before taxes. Know these terms and how they work Debt-to-income-ratio. 4, more than double the maximum of 2. To be eligible, a family of four's earnings cannot exceed 80 percent of the median income for the area, which is $63,200. While unadjusted house prices are now 44. priced between $250,000-$400,000 affordable to households with a combined income between $60,000 and $100,000 These homes are subject to a 50-year resale restriction. Based on the information you provided, a house at this price should fit . From 2019 to 2021, the pandemic drastically increased the average. Here is a look at house price to median household income: Click on image for larger graph in new window. Once you are ready, you'll need to get professional mortgage. The median gross income for households in Baltimore is $42,241 a year, or $3,520 a month. 9% increase that’s more than double the recommended ratio of 2. 5% above the housing boom peak in 2006, real, house-buying power-adjusted house prices remain 33. The price-to-income ratio is useful in visualizing the historical anomaly of the real estate bubble that occurred in many markets between 2000 and 2006. The ratio measures the development of housing affordability and is calculated by dividing nominal house price by nominal disposable income per head, with 2015 set as a base year when the. your annual salary after tax would need to be at least £28,000, depending on . 5% above the housing boom peak in 2006, real, house-buying power-adjusted house prices remain 33. 9% increase that's more than double the recommended ratio of 2. Published by Statista Research Department , Aug 24, 2022 The house price ratio in the United States fluctuated between 2012 and 2022. cities, zip codes, and area codes information, including population, races, income, housing, school May 30, 2003 · Finding Nemo. Proposition 121 seeks to decrease the state income tax rate from 4. Low Income and Affordable Housing Options for Senior Citizens. neighborhoods; Affordability is mostly a problem in large . median income of $67,521, mortgages take up 30. Essentially what this means is homes cost 5. Home prices have increased a whopping 64. The specific closing costs you’ll pay depend on your state’s requirements and your lender. Between 2010 and 2019, the average y-o-y increase in house prices of 7. The American tax system isn’t known for being the most straightforward set of laws and processes to follow, and being responsible for determining what you owe each year can seem confusing — if not a l. Here’s an example: Add up your monthly debt: $1,200 (rent) + $200 (car loan) + $150 (student loan) + $85 (credit card payments) = $1,635 total. Search 218 Low Income Single Family Homes For Rent in Detroit, Michigan. Edition in this dataset Current edition of this dataset xlsx (526. - GitHub - subhadipml/California-Housing-Price-Prediction: Build. net%2fhouse-affordability-calculator. 41 Tree House Pl UNIT 41, Nellysford, VA 22958. House prices are based mostly on actual recent sale prices of comparable homes in the same neighborhood, so they are not ridiculous because people have paid . Our home affordability tool calculates how much house you can afford based on several key inputs: your income, savings and monthly debt obligations, . For example, if you are looking for a two bedroom apartment in Los Angeles, CA, the average rent per month is $2,300. In the initial years, the interest component of your housing loan will be . The second number sets the limit on your mortgage payment plus any other debts you owe at no more than 36% of your gross income.  To measure the relationship between housing prices and CPI: Shelter, we run a series of simple. Office and residential buildings are seen along the Sungai Besi-Ulu Kelang Elevated Expressway in the Tasek Tambahan. 25% mortgage rate, your mortgage payment would be $2,959 or 29. 2% in September relative to a year earlier. geographical locations and policies. Halloween deadline to apply for direct payment worth $12,000. Housing prices are on the rise, thanks in large part to extremely tight used varied from 4 to 5% in each state, depending on the market. House Prices? Regional Income Divergence.How Much House Can I Afford Based On Income?. And house prices that don't increase as fast would tend to improve wealth equality in at least three different ways, 1) by increasing jobs and income growth (see above), 2) by increasing. Housing ratio equals combined (principal + interest + taxes + insurance) monthly mortgage payment divided by your gross monthly income. Median Home Price (NSA). The consumer price index, a key inflation barometer, jumped by 8. 2,117 Low Income Apartment Communities In Minnesota Douglas Trail Townhomes 5041 Weatherstone Cir NW Rochester, Minnesota $850-975 2-3 BR View Apartment Maplewood Apartments 1320 N 5th St St Peter, Minnesota $690-835 1-3 BR Subsidized View Apartment Briarhill Apartments 7025 Woodland Drive Eden Prairie, Minnesota Call For Rent 1-3 BR Subsidized. Plenty of low and middle income workers can barely afford to buy into the Weight scale real estate house buy price loan mortgage debt. Similar to Section 8 housing, Rents for public housing units are determined by the tenants adjusted income so that most qualified tenants will pay no more than 30% of their adjusted monthly income. Based on Redfin calculations of home data from MLS. 2020 2021 2022 $250K $300K $350K $400K $450K $500K. How Much House Can I Afford?. Follow the 28/36 debt-to-income rule This rule asserts that you do not want to spend more than 28% of your monthly income on housing-related expenses and not spend more than 36% of your income against all debts, including your new mortgage. Housing ratio equals combined (principal + interest + taxes + insurance) monthly mortgage payment divided by your gross monthly income. That comes out to an increase of only 15%. For metropolitan level, median household income . The best low cost / budget house design plans. For example, in 2020, the median household income in San Francisco was $119,136 compared to $53,329—less than half as much—in Yavapai County, Arizona. For the past 30 years (1973–2002), the actual increase in average house price in Taipei has been 7. The first number sets 28% of gross income as the maximum total mortgage payment, including principal, interest, taxes, and insurance. Your debt-to-income ratio (DTI) would be 36%, meaning 36% of your pretax income would go toward mortgage and other debts. Between 2019 and 2020, the real median earnings of all workers decreased by 1. How much house can I afford? See what you can afford and find homes within your budget. Monthly debts / month Obligations like loan and debt payments or alimony, but not costs like groceries or utilities. According to the report, from 2019 to 2021, the average house-price-to-income ratio increased from 4. Housing (30% of pretax income) $2,500. 3 When it comes to qualifying for programs designed to assist people earning low incomes, the definitions vary. How to Calculate Property Value Based On Rental Income. See details for 1109 Earl Street (House #3), Philadelphia, PA 19125, 3 Bedrooms, 4 Full/1 Half Bathrooms, 3000 Sq Ft. The rule of thumb is to spend about 28% of your income on housing. See 57 results for Government houses for low income at the best prices, with the cheapest property starting from R 315 000. Yearly Income Estimates Rules vary for how much house you should buy based on a your yearly income. Multiply the GRM by the annual gross rental income. Houses for Rent Near Me; Cheap Apartments for Rent Near Me; More. Financial comparison site RateCity has calculated the annual household income needed to buy now, based on current house price medians and . 8718 Chalfonte St, Detroit, MI 48238. Our home affordability tool calculates how much house you can afford based on several key inputs: your income, savings and monthly debt obligations, as well as the mortgages available. 4 times more, on average, than a typical buyer’s gross income. The FHFA HPI incorporates tens of millions of home sales and offers insights about house price fluctuations. The Housing Choice Voucher Program (formerly known as Section 8) is a program from the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The average UK house price was £256,000 in March 2021; this is £24,000 higher than in March 2020 (Figure 2). For example, a combined monthly mortgage payment of $1,200 divided by gross monthly income of $4,500 equals a housing ratio of 27%. House prices reflect the discounted value of expected rents, which reflect expected incomes. According to the report, from 2019 to 2021, the average house-price-to-income ratio increased from 4. 6) How to merge all these datasets to make them one useful. The amount of money you spend upfront to purchase a home. See details for 41 Tree House Pl UNIT 41, Nellysford, VA 22958, Price: $129,000, Land, MLS#: 636212, Status: NEW LISTING, Courtesy: REAL ESTATE III - NORTH, Provided. Colorado State Income Tax Rate Reduction Initiative. Halloween deadline to apply for direct payment worth $12,000 – …. 5%) is $2,331 for principal and interest. Some lenders, for Housing Expense Ratio. While the average of the median salaries of Southerners (£26,056) is a little higher than those of Northerners (£21,356), the average house prices are dramatically steeper, with Northern houses costing an average of £144,356 and Southern homes costing a whopping £328,444. Use our calculator to try out other. Crime Index by Country 2022 Mid-Year. If you are a first-time homebuyer with an FHA loan, the payment for a $450k house with an interest rate of 5% and a down payment of $15,750 (3. , the FHFA house price index is a quarterly index that measures average changes in housing prices based on sales or refinancing's of single-family homes whose mortgages have been purchased or securitized by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. Your total debt payments (including housing costs) can’t usually be more than 36% of your pretax. Founded in 1937, Baltimore -based T. com has created an least affordable property market, with the average household income of £16,964 . 5 times an individual’s annual income. Low-income homeowners can also qualify for discounts on mortgage insurance. The ratio measures the development of housing. It has been over fifteen years since the bubble peak. Generally, for markets which have had some stability in price-to-income ratios, deviations from long-term trends tend to be followed by a return to historical levels. Here’s an example: Add up your monthly debt: $1,200 (rent) + $200 (car loan) + $150 (student loan) + $85 (credit card payments) = $1,635 total. Why it works: These tiny homes provide a dignified and private space, improving residents' mental and physical health, economic stability and food security. The price to income and price to rent ratios are indices with base year 2015. Combined with their debt payments, that adds up to $1,200 – or around 34% of their income. 6% of your monthly gross income. The ratio measures the development of housing affordability and is calculated by dividing nominal house price by nominal disposable income per . Housing ratio equals combined (principal + interest + taxes + insurance) monthly mortgage payment divided by your gross monthly income. The UK, which is being called a “bubble on a bubble,” sat at 107. September 24, 2022 6:00 PM 3 minute read. Then take your annual income and divide by 12 to determine your monthly income. House For Sale Even when home prices slip, it's still important to make sure you're financially prepared to buy a new house. To estimate property values based on rental income, investors can use the gross rental . However, this valuation does not take into account the income component. If you have significant credit card debt or other financial obligations like alimony or even. House price inflation has a mixed impact on the economy depending upon the extent and timing of the rise in house prices. Example of the 28/36 rule: If your gross income is $6,000 per month, your magic. House Price to Median Income. Specifically, the simulation model is used to examine the effects of a policy setting on loan-to-value (LTV) and debt-to-income (DTI), which are policy . The Problems of Price Controls. Include any co-buyer's income. That is, a f amily must invest nearly 5 times their annual family income For the purchase of their home. With 30% of the home price saved, you can put down 20% and have a nice $85,000 cash cushion. How Much House Can I Afford? Home Affordability Calculator. To afford a home in 2021, Americans need an average income of $144,192 — but the current median household income is actually $69,178. How much you might be able to afford based on the income and debt . Our home affordability tool calculates how much house you can afford based on several key inputs: your income, savings and monthly debt obligations, as well as the mortgages available in your area. House price affordability 'like climbing 10 Everests'. The model found a significant positive correlation between house prices and income. With the median home price just under $190,000, a typical worker needs to earn just over $43,000 to buy it. 4x what the average person earns in one year. (2020) House Prices, per Capita Income and Real Estate Planning Investment—An Empirical Study Based on Anhui Province. cities, home prices are almost . How to calculate the income approach Let’s say an investor finds a home that generates $24,000 annual gross rental income, with annual operating expenses of $3,600.